(A) The Himalayan :-
- Himalays means Abode of snow
- Total length= 2500 km
- Total width = 240 to 320 kms
- Himalayan are young fold Mountains
- Folded over Tethys sea due to intercontinental collision (European plate and Indo-Australian Plate)
- Himalayas are sedimentary rocks
- Stretch from Indus river (west) to Brahmaputra river (East)
- The Pamir (know as Roof of world) connecting the link b/n Himalayan and the central Asia ranges
- The Himalayan ranges Divided into four ranges
- Inner Himalaya or Greater Himalaya ( Himadri)
- Middle Himalaya or Lesser Himalaya (Himachal)
- Outer Himalaya (Shiwalik)
- Trans Himalayan Zones
- Inner Himalayan or Greater Himalaya (Himadri) :-
- Northern part of Himalaya
- World highest peak lie on this range
- Average height = 6100 m from sea level
- Highest peak are- Mt Everest (Nepal), Nanga parbat (Kashmir Himachal ragion) , Kanchenjunga (Sikkim, it is also know as India highest lake), Nandadevi (Uttarakhand)
|Karakoram pass||J&K||India to China|
|Burzil Pass||J&K||Kashmir valley to Central Asia|
|Zojila pass||J&K||Srinagar to Leh|
|Shipki pass||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla to Garetok (Tibet)|
|Jelep la pass||Sikkim||West Bengal to Lhasa (Tibet)|
|Yang yap pass||Arunachal Pradesh||Entry of Brahmaputra|
2. Middle Himalaya or Lesser Himalaya (Himachal) :-
From west to East middle Himalaya is divided ino following ranges
- Pirpanjal range (J&K):- It is longest range of pirpanjal range
- Dhauladhar range (Himachal pradesh)
- Mussoorie range (Uttarakhand)
- Nagtibba range (Nepal)
- Mahabharat range (Nepal)
Important passes in Middle Himalaya:-
|Pirpanjal pass||J&K||Jammu-Srinagar road passes from this pass|
|Banihal pass||J&K||Jammu- Srinagar (NH-1 passes from this pass) Jawahar tunnel (India’s longest road tunnel)|
|Rohtang Pass||Himachal Pradesh||Kullu-keylang road passes from this pass|
- Avg height of Middle Himalaya is 3700-4500 km
- Important Hill resorts are Shimla, Ranikhet, Almora, Nainital, Darjeeling.
3. Outer Himalayas (Shiwalik):-
- Average elevation is 900-1200 km.
- It is youngest part of mountain.
4. Trans Himalayan Zones:-
- It lies north of the Great Himalaya
- Some important ranges of this Zone are Karakoram and Ladakh etc.
- The highest peak in region is K2 or Godwin Austin or Qagir.
- Mount K2is also the 2nd highest peak of the world and the highest peak of the India, located in the Karakoram range.
- Mt. Rakaposhi is the highest peak in Ladakh range and the steepest peak in the world.
- Siachin glacier is the longest glacier of the world located in the Nubra valley.
|Highest peak||Name of Peak||State|
|Highest peak of India||Godwin Austin||Gilgit, Pakistan occupied Kashmir (pok)|
|Highest peak of Satpura||Dhupgarh||Madhyapradesh|
|Highest Peak of Aravali||Gurushikhar in Mt Abu||Rajasthan|
|Highest Peak of Western Ghat||Anaimudi||kerala|
|Highest Peak of Eastern Ghat||Mahendragiri||Odissa|
|Highest Peak of Nilgiri||Doda Beta||Tamil Nadu|
|Highest Peak of Naga Hills||Saramati||Meghalya|
|Highest Peak of Andaman Nicobar||Saddle Peak||Andaman Nicobar|
(B) The Peninsular plateau:-
- Rising from the height of 150m above the river plains up to an elevation of 600-1000 m is the irregular triangle known as the peninsular plateau.
- It made up off igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- Peninsular plateau is divided into two part by Narmada River.
- The Malwa plateau (North of Narmada River)
- The Deccan plateau (South of Narmada River)
- The Deccan plateau is the largest in India.
- The Malwa Plateau :-
- The central Highland of the plateau lie to the north of the Naramada river covering a major area of the Malwa Plateau.
- The Aravalis range is bounded by the central Highlands on the north west and vindhyan range on the south.
- It is also called Madhya Bharat Patnar.
2. The Deccan Plateau:-
- The Deccan Plateau is a triangular land lying to the South of the river Narmada. It is made up of lava flows through the fissure eruptions.
- It comprises Maharashtra plateau, Karnataka, plateau and the Telangana.
- The Eastern and Western Ghats demarcate the Eastern and Western edges of the Deccan plateau.
Some Important Plateau of Peninsular India :-
a) Mehalaya Plateau:-
- This plateau is separated from main block of the peninsular plateau by a gap called garo-Raj Mahal gap.
- From East to West the plateau compresses Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Mikir hills.
b) The Bundelkhand Upland:-
- It is located to the South of Yamana river between Madhya Bharat pathar and the vindhyan scrap lands and is composed of granites and gneiss.
c) The Marwar Upland:-
- It lies East of Aravali range, made up of sand stone, shades and lime stone of vidhyan period.
d) Chhotanagpur Plateau:-
- It covers mostly Jharkhand, adjoining eastern Madhya Pradesh and Purulis of Paschim Banga.
- It composed mainly of Godavana rocks with patches of granites and gneisses and Deccan lavas.
Hill Ranges of the Peninsular :-
- Aravali Range:-
- Aravalis are the world’s oldest fold mountain running in north-east to south –East direction from Delhi to Gujarat.
- It is an example of relict mountain.
- It separates the fertile regions of Udaipur and Jaipur regions from the semi-arid regions of Rajasthan.
2. Satpura Range :-
- It is a series of seven mountains running in East-West direction south of vindhyan and in between the Narmada and Tapi.
- It comprises Rajpipla hills, Mahadeo hills and Maikal Range.
3. Vindhyan Range :-
- This range acts as a water, divide between Ganga system with the river system of South India, The Maikal range formsa connecting link between Vindhya and Satpura.
4. Eastern Ghat :-
- It comprises the discontinuous and low hills that are highly eroded by the river such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Cauveri ets.
- Some of the important ranges include the Javodi hills, the Velikonda range, the Nallamalai hills, the Mahendragiri hills etc.
5. Western Ghat :-
- Western Ghats are locally known by different names such as sahyadri in Maharashtra, Nilgiri hills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala.
- It runs from the South of the valley of River Tapi to Kanyakumari.
- The sanyadris upto 16° North latitude are mainly composed of basalt.
- There are three important passes in the sanyadris
- Thalghat (between Mumbai and Pune)
- Bhorghat (between Mumbai and Nasik)
- Palghat (between Palakkad and Coimbatore)
The Eastern and The Western Ghats meet each other at the Nilgiri hill.
- Difference between Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats :-
|Eastern Ghats||Western Ghats|
|Located East to Deccan Plateau||Located West to Deccan Plateau|
|They are parallel to Eastern Coast ie. Coromandal Northern and Circar Southern etc.||They are parallel to Western Coast ie. Kankan, Kannad, Malabar etc|
|Mahanadi, Cauveri, Godavari, Krishna etc. rivers are drawn in this land form.||Narmada, Tapi, Sabarmati and Mahi etc rivers are drawn in this land.|
|Mahendragiri with an altitude of 1501 m is the highest peak here.||Anaimudi with an altitude of 2695 m is the highest peak here|
(C) The Great Plain of India :-
1. The Punjab Plain :-
- The Western part of the Northern plain is known as the Punjab plain.
- The plain is drained by the Indus and its tributaries, such as, the Sutlej, Beas and Ravi. Only a part of the Indus basin lies in India.
- The plain slopes gently down towards the south-west; hence the rivers follow the slope of the land.
- The plain is mostly made of silts. The soil is porous.
- The plain that is formed by the deposition of new alluvium near the river banks is called Bet.
- Large boulder, gravel, sand and clay cover the foot-hill regions of the Punjab plain and they are known as ‘Bhabar’ plain or bhabar soil. This soil cannot hold water.
|Name of Doabs||Region|
|Bust Doab||B/w Beas and Sutlej|
|Bari Doab||B/w Beas and Ravi|
|Rachna Doab||B/w Ravi and Chenab|
|Chaj Doab||B/w Chenab and Jehlam|
|Sind Sagar Doab||B/w Jehlam and Indus|
|Bhangar (Old alluvium)||Khadar (New alluvium)|
|1. These are low plain. 2. This belts ends in khaddar.||1. The deposit of alluvium fresh every year brought by the Himalayas rivers makes this belt of Northern plains. 2. This belts ends in Terai.|
|Long narrow plain along the foothills of shiwalik||Broad long zone south of Bhabar plain|
|Pebble studded zone of porous beds||Marshy damp area convered with thick forest|
|9-16km wide||20-30 km wide|
|Unsuitable for agriculture||Suitable for agriculture|
2. The Ganga Plain :-
- The major portion of the Great Indian Plain consists of tile Ganga basin.
- It extends from the eastern margin of the Punjab in the west to Bangladesh border in the east.
- This is an extensive plain encompassing states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
- It is drained by the rivers/river system such as Yamuna, Ganga, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and Tista from the Himalayas in the north and Chambal, Betwa, Son and Damodar from the plateau in the south. The entire region slopes towards south and south-east.
- The Ganga plain is the most populous part of India. People of this plain are mainly engaged in agriculture. Trade, industry and commerce are also prosperous.
Divisions: This plain may be divided into three regions:
- Upper Ganga plain: It stretches from the Yamuna river in the west to Allahabad city in the east,
- Middle Ganga plain: It stretches from Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh) in the west to Rajmahal hill in the east, and
- Lower Ganga plain: It stretches from Rajmahal hill to the Bay of Bengal.
3. The Brahmaputra Valley :-
- It lies in the north-eastern part of the country and is hemmed between the Arunachal Himalayas on the north and the Meghalaya Plateau on the south.
- The valley presents a flat plain.
- It is formed by the debris brought down by river Brahmaputra and its innumerable tributaries.
- The plain seldom rises above 100 meters above the sea-level and slopes gently towards the west.
- Ranges of hills are found standing on both sides of the river.
- Innumerable Sandbars and islets are found on the Brahmaputra and the river flows out in different channels avoiding obstacles of sandbar.
- Majuli Island is by far the largest sandbar ever formed on any other river bed in the world. The green Brahmaputra valley is noted for tea plantation.
(D) The Coastal Plain of India :-
|The Eastern Coastal Plain||The Western Coastal Plain|
|Ganga in North to Kanyakumari in South for 1100 km with average width of 120km||1500km long from surat to Cape Camorin|
|Division :- 1.Utkal Plain:- Ganga to Mahanadi 2.Andhra Coastal:-Utkal plains to Pulicat lake 3.TamilNadu plain:-Chennai to Kanyakumari||Division :- 1. Kachchh Plains:- Surrounded by Sear and Lagoons 2. Kathiawar Plains:-Rann of Kachchh to Dasman in the South 3. Gujarat Plains:-East of kachchh to Kathiawar 4. Konkan Coast:-Daman to Goa 5. Karnataka or Kanora Coast:-Goa to Bengaluru 6. Malabar Coast/Kerala Coast:-Bangalore to Kanyakumari|
|Occurrence of Deltas (Mahanadi, Krishna-Godavari,Kaveri Deltas)||Occurrence of Estuaries|
|Less Rainfall||More Rainfall|
|Broader Plain||Narrower Plain|
|Long River (Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri)||Small River (Narmada, Tapti, Sabarmati, Mahi, Luni)|
(E) The Islands of India :-